双语|澳洲林业真的是朝阳产业吗?Is Forestry a key Australian Industry?

澳联社AusInsider2018-08-18 09:09:34

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前言


林业是澳大利亚的一个重要产业,并且是农业的一个部分。澳大利亚大多数的森林都是作为自然资源来管理的,经常需要放火清除树木底部的灌木,或者战略性砍伐古老森林里的大型木材,来优化森林的自然更新过程,因为不同的季节里温度和降水条件有很大的变化。



 科研的重要性


最近,南澳州的Mount Gambier将要新建一个国家林业产品创新研究中心,这会进一步加强南澳州作为澳大利亚软木材工业发源地以及林业创新领导者的地位。


该研究中心坐落于南澳州大学Mount Gambier校区,由澳大利亚联邦政府和南澳州政府共同出资400万澳元建立,而且还会受到行业内人士资助。


农业助理部长Anne Ruston表示,这个新的研究中心将在澳大利亚人工林业的知识建构方面发挥重要作用,而且会让知识到实践的转换方式发生革命性发展


研究中心的目的是要将每一寸土地上收获木材的价值最大化,使澳大利亚的木材产品转移到价值链的顶端。


最终的结果是澳大利亚东南部的企业获得更多收入、吸引更多投资、产生更多就业、经济更加繁荣。


重要的是,Mount Gambier研究中心的研究成果对整个澳大利亚都会有影响。研究成果可以应用到澳大利亚其他的软木材种植区。研究中心会和木材行业紧密合作,让投入的每一分钱产生最大的经济效益。在澳大利亚,资本非常短缺。


研究中心将会加强我们的研究机构和行业战略需求之间的联系。



林业真的是朝阳产业吗?


有一些新的行业潜力非常巨大,比如生物材料和生物塑料。


澳大利亚的种植林业行业也非常成功。2015-2016年,澳大利亚的人工林业使收获的木材总量增加到了2600万立方米。如今,种植林业已经实现连续3年增长


Barker区议员Tony Pasin表示,南澳州种植林业的历史非常悠久,19世纪70年代澳大利亚最早的一些人工林业就是在这里试点的。


2015-16年南澳州总共有17.88公顷人工林,生产的木材总价值为3.21亿澳元。新建的创新研究中心将进一步促进当地产业的发展。


在南澳州,有1.3万多人在林业部门就业。


暴风雨的前兆?


如果违法了偏远地区林业协定的条款,伐木业也将不能免于国家环境法的制裁。 《偏远地区林业协定》对澳大利亚林业发展作出的一系列规定,而现在它的权利范围则出现了很大的不确定性。


联邦法院裁定,《偏远地区林业协定》并不能完全不受国家法律的约束,也就是它还受制于为了保护濒危物种的《环境保护和生物多样性法》。此后,野生环境保护协会表示,澳大利亚的林业将会面临更加严格的审查


《偏远地区林业协定》本来应该使伐木业免受国家环保法的约束,但联邦法院裁定,如果违反了维多利亚州《中央高地林业协议》的条款的话,那么维州中央高地的伐木业则将也不能免受国家环保法的约束。这对整个澳大利亚的伐木业都有影响,包括南澳州。


Mortimer法官发现,如果想要伐木业不受到《环境保护和生物多样性发》的约束,就必须遵守濒危物种管理计划、行动计划和恢复计划的要求。


如果违反了《偏远地区林业协议》,伐木业会对濒危物种造成严重影响的话,那么伐木的企业可能会违反《环境保护和生物多样性法》,从而招致几百万澳元的罚款。


野生环境保护协会维多利亚州分会的活动负责人Amelia Young表示,《偏远地区林业协议》对于濒危物种是一个致命打击,因为它使伐木业成为唯一免受《环境保护和生物多样性法》约束的产业。


法院的判决发现,如果维多利亚州中央高地的伐木企业没有遵循《林业协议》中关于保护濒危物种的规定,那么免受国家环保法约束的豁免权就自动消失。


《偏远地区林业协议》是一系列为期20年的林业计划,一共有10个,遍布4个州。如今所有的协议都即将到期,这给林业部门带来了很大的不确定性。


一些社会活动人士表示,每个行业、每个人都要遵守《环境保护和生物多样性发》,伐木业不能例外。规则面前,所有人、所有行业都应该一视同仁。对于这样一个一直榨取纳税人血汗钱的产业,法律不应该对其豁免。


澳大利亚环保律师事务所代表维多利亚州的负鼠保护协会将国有木材企业VicForests告上了法庭。原告认为,维多利亚州中央高地的伐木活动违反了《偏远地区林业协议》的规定,因此不应该免受《环境保护和生物多样性法》的约束。


联邦法庭现在必须判决VicForests的伐木活动是否违反了《偏远地区林业协议》的规定。


法院案例



澳大利亚政府表示,在负鼠保护协会和VicForests的案子上支持联邦法庭的决定。该案审理接受公民的意见。


澳大利亚农业助理部长Anne Ruston表示,澳大利亚政府支持《偏远地区林业协议》,这是实现环境、经济和对本地木材的社会需求之间平衡的最佳机制。


在澳大利亚偏远地区,有6.7万人在林业部门工作,林业给澳大利亚偏远地区带来了就业机会和经济繁荣。我们想要维持这些就业岗位。


澳大利亚政府认为《偏远地区林业协议》对环境带来了好处。通过这些协议,330万公顷的原始森林变成了保育休耕土地,使保育系统增加了46%。


联邦政府会继续和州政府合作,在10个林业协议到期之后,继续实施这些协议。


亲爱的读者们,你的观点是什么?



『原文』

Is Forestry a key Australian Industry?



Forestry is a key Australian industry and part of agriculture in the sense that most Australian forests are managed, not necessarily as plantations but as natural resources that need for example burning back at times to clear undergrowth or logging large timber strategically in old-growth forests, so their natural renewal process is optimised for example with the backdrop of varying seasons in terms of temperatures and rainfall.


Science is a key part of this process!

South Australia, the birthplace of the Australian softwood plantation industry and a leader in forestry innovation, has been further strengthened with the launch of a new National Institute for Forest Products Innovation hub in Mount Gambier.


The Institute, which will be hosted at the University of South Australia’s Mount Gambier campus, is backed by $4 million funding from the Australian and South Australian Governments and will be supported by industry contributions.


Assistant Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources Anne Ruston said the new hub will play an important role in building knowledge on Australia’s plantation forests and revolutionising the way they are used.

It’s about maximising the value from every cubic metre harvested from plantations. It’s about moving Australian wood products up the value chain.


The end result is better returned to business, more investment, more jobs and greater economic prosperity and wealth in the South East Australian community.


Importantly, the research done in Mount Gambier will have national implications. The research can be applied to other softwood plantation regions across Australia. The innovation hub will work closely with industry to maximise the economic returns from every dollar spent. In Australia, an important aspect as capital is in short supply.


The hub will strengthen ties between our research institutions and the sector’s strategic needs.


Forestry is truly a sunrise industry?

There is great potential in the new frontiers such as bio-materials and bio-plastics.


Australia’s plantation forestry sector is a real success story. Now in its third consecutive year of growth, Australia’s plantation industry increased the volume of logs harvested to a record 26 million cubic metres in 2015-16.


Member for Barker Tony Pasin said South Australia has a long history in plantation forestry dating back to the establishment of some of Australia’s first forest plantation trials in the 1870s.


In South Australia, there were 178 800 hectares of plantation forests in 2015-16 with logs produced to a value of $321 million. The innovation hub will enable the local industry to advance even further.


Over 13 000 South Australians are employed in the forestry sector.


Storm clouds on the horizon!

Logging is not exempt from national environment laws if Regional Forest Agreements are breached, so Regional Forest Agreements that govern logging in Australia is now under a huge cloud of uncertainty.


The logging industry across Australia will face closer scrutiny, the Wilderness Society said after the Federal Court ruled that a Regional Forest Agreement is not completely exempt from the national laws to protect endangered species, the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity (EPBC) Act.


Regional Forest Agreements were supposed to exempt logging from the EPBC Act, but the Federal Court ruled that logging in the Central Highlands in Victoria may not be exempt from the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity (EPBC) Act if terms of the Central Highlands Regional Forest Agreement have been breached, which has implications for logging across Australia, including South Australia.


Justice Mortimer found that Management Plans for threatened species, and requirements under Action Plans and Recovery Plans, must be observed for logging to get the exemption from the EPBC Act. The judge’s decision did not examine whether or not VicForests’ (in the state of Victoria) logging has complied with these requirements.


If logging under breached Regional Forest Agreements has had a significant impact on endangered species, then that logging may be in breach of the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity (EPBC) Act, which could carry fines of millions of dollars.


Regional Forest Agreements have been death warrants for endangered species, making logging the only industry exempt from the national laws to protect endangered species, the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity (EPBC) Act, said Wilderness Society Victoria Campaign Manager Amelia Young.


The judgement, however, finds that if logging in the Victorian Central Highlands does not comply with terms and requirements of plans for threatened species, the exemption from national environment law potentially falls away.


The 20-year-old Regional Forest Agreements are expiring all over the country a real issue contributing to industry uncertainty.


Activists claim the logging industry must abide by the same national laws to protect endangered species that every other industry and person is obliged to. There should be one rule for all, not special exemptions for an industry that continues to drain taxpayers’ hard-earned money.


Environment Justice Australia, acting on behalf of Friend of the Leadbeater’s Possum, a native Australian animal, has taken court action against VicForests to argue that past and future logging in Victoria’s Central Highlands should not be exempt from the EPBC Act, as it has not been undertaken in accordance with the RFA.


The Federal Court now must rule on whether the logging has breached the EPBC Act.


Federal Court Case: Friends of the Leadbeater’s Possum v VicForests

The Australian Government has welcomed the decision of the Federal Court in relation to the matter of Friends of the Leadbeater’s Possum and VicForests in which the Commonwealth’s submissions were accepted.


The Australian Government is committed to Regional Forest Agreements, which are the best mechanism for balancing environmental, economic and social demands on our native forests, Assistant Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources, Senator Anne Ruston said.


With over 67,000 people employed, the forestry industry brings jobs and economic prosperity to regional Australia and we want to make sure those jobs are secure into the future.


The Australians Government strong view is that RFAs have delivered for the environment. More than 3.3 million hectares of native forest has been transferred into conservation reserves through the RFAs. This has increased the reserve system by 46 percent.


The government will continue to work with state governments to fulfil our promise to roll out the extensions of RFAs in all ten RFA regions across Australia.


Dear readers, what is your perspective?

A.    Environment comes first?

B.    Possums come first?

C.    Industry comes first?

D.    Compromise is needed?

Please leave your comments, we need them!



作者AuthorRoger Hausmann - Federal Parliamentary Journalist澳洲联邦记者

本文翻译Translator:周吉吉Julie

本文编辑Editor:千千Coco


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